Low bass – frequency range between 20 Hz and 80 Hz
Bass - frequency range between 60 Hz and 250 Hz
Middle - frequency range between 250 Hz and 6 kHz
Lower middle - frequency range between 250 Hz and 2 kHz
Upper middle - frequency range between 2 kHz and 6 kHz
High/Treble - frequency range from 6 kHz and upwards
The presence range is the frequency range between 4 kHz and 6 kHz. It defines the clarity and emphasis of instruments and voices. Accentuating this frequency range makes the music seem nearer.
Headband headphones comprise two earcups, which are connected by a band which runs across the head. The mechanics of the headband ensure that the earcups are pressed against the ears on both sides to guarantee stability. Headband headphones can be distinguished according to different criteria:
Open-back headphones have numerous holes in the covers of their earcups. In this way they sound for the most part “more airy”, have a higher resolution of detail and allows a more spacious “soundscape”. On the other hand it lets almost unfiltered atmospheric noise into the ear and the music played is emitted outward. It therefore most suitable for home use.
With closed-back headphones the earphones are completely closed. In this way they isolate well against atmospheric noise. In addition closed-back headphones have for the most part, a more powerful bass. They are best suited for outside use, although high-end models also exist for home use.
Half open-back headphones
Half open-back headphones bridge the gap between open and closed models: they have few or at least heavily insulated holes in the earcups. The characteristics of half open-back headphones depend very much on the isolation. Accordingly the transition is proving to be smooth within this product class.
The (mostly flat) pads of the earcups sit directly on the ears.
The pads of the earcups – normally curved or ring-shaped – completely surround the ears and sit on the skull.
Earbuds are small headphones that sit at the end of the ear canal. They are not inserted into the ear canal, but sit between the ear cartilage and the entrance to the ear canal. Particularly easy to use, but with mostly low isolation, they are suitable mainly as an alternative to in-ear headphones.
Clip-ons are a middle way between earbuds and supra-aural headphones. The transducer is located in a flat casing, which directly rests on the ear and is held in place with frames like a pair of glasses. Isolation is for the most part inferior than is the case with earbuds, but the larger transducers have the potential for better sound.
In-Ears are placed directly into the ear canal. A choice of eartips in the delivery package ensures that almost all users achieve a good position and solid isolation. In-Ears use particularly small acoustic transducers which, together with the casing, often disappear into the ear. These can be either dynamic or Balanced Armature transducers.
Dynamic transducers are the most widespread driver technology. Like miniature loudspeakers, a spiral-shaped filament drives its connected diaphragm, through which sound is produced.
Balanced Armature (BA)
A small “anchor” lies in the magnetic field of a permanent magnet in the case of BA drivers. When electricity flows through the coil of the armature, it becomes magnetised and thus rotates. A diaphragm tied to the armature produces sound waves in this way.